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quinta-feira, 14 de julho de 2016

South China Sea, Desizaun Tribunal Arbitrase International, Pozisaun Australia no Relevansia ho Tasi Timor


SOUTH CHINA SEA, DESIZAUN TRIBUNAL ARBITRASE INTERNATIONAL, POZISAUN AUSTRALIA NO RELEVANSIA HO TASI TIMOR

Husi Estanislau S. Saldanha


Estanislau S. Saldanha
Tribunal Arbitrase International (The Permanent Court of Arbitration ka PCA) iha The Hague, Olanda, hakotu katak China la iha bazel legal hodi klaim direitu historitiku iha Tasi China Sul (South China Sea) hotu no viola direitu ekonomia ho soberanu Filipina nian (CNN, 12 Juilu 2016 ho Harian Kompas, 15 Juilu 2016). Tribunal hakotu bazeia ba keixa husi Filipina. China ho Filipina ratifika UNCLOS no membru Tribunal Arbitrase International. Desizaun Tribunal Arbitrase International final no hakesi parte rua, maske Tribunal nee la iha meius hodi obriga parte rua atu implementa desizaun nee.

Reazen ba desizaun Tribunal Arbitrase International, China dehan sei la kumpri desizaun nee (CNN, 12 Juilu 2016). Husi parte seluk EUA husu atu China respeita desizaun Tribunal nee no resolve problema nee ho dame. Australia via MNEN Julie Bishop deklara mos katak China tenki respeita desizaun nee no buka solusan dame ba isu nee tuir kustumu no konvensaun internasional, se lae, China sei sofre reputasaun (the Australian, 13 Juilu 2016). Australia husu atu China respeita desizaun tribunal arbitrase internasional no nasaun nee sei halao movimentu trafiku  komersial livre iha South China Sea (ABC News, 13 Juilu 2016). China protesta deklarasaun Australia nebee hatoo husi Julie Bishop nee (ABC, 15 Juilu 2016 ho Harian Kompas, 15 Juilu 2016).

China lakohi simu desizaun Tribunal Arbitrase International nian maibe desizaun nee final no hakesi (mengikat). Sekarik China kontinua la simu, nian bele hetan naran ladiak tanba viola norma ho prinsipiu internasional no bele mos "dikucilkan" husi pergaulan internasional. Nunee impede hakarak boot China nian nebe hakarak sai nasaun "super power" no involve iha isu-isu internasional tanba lakon kredibilidade no autoridade moral hodi kulia konaba problema internasional.

Hare husi kazu South China Sea, Timor-Leste mos bele lori Australia ba Tribunal Arbitrase International hodi rezolve fronteira maritima entre Timor-Leste ho Australia iha Tasi Timor, maske Australia dada an ona husi UNCLOS. Maibe antes nee, Timor-Leste tenki halo uluk klaim formal konaba fronteira maritima Timor-Leste nian husi nebee too iha nebee iha Tasi Timor tuir prinsipiu UNCLOS. Klaim nee tenki bazeia ba evidensia historis, geologis ho legal nebee permiti iha UNCLOS no konvensaun internasional sira seluk.

Bainhira iha ona klaim formal, Timor-Leste hatoo keixa formal ba Tribunal Arbitrase International no julgamentu asuntu nee sei uza UNCLOS. Maske Australia dada an ona husi UNCLOS, maibe “ita fiar” Tribunal Arbitrase International bele kontinua julga klaim Timor-Leste nian. Hanesan mos China lakohi partisipa no defende nia an iha Tribunal Arbitrase International konaba South China Sea, maibe Tribunal kontinua julga no hola desizaun. Rezultadu husi Tribunal nee mak Timor-Leste bele uza hodi obriga Australia tuur hamutuk Governu Timor-Leste hodi negosia fronteira maritima ho Timor-Leste.

Australia husu China respeita desizaun Tribunal Arbitrase International tuir UNCLOS no kustumu international, entaun Timor-Leste mos husu Australia nudar nasaun boot tenki respeita direitu klaim Timor-Leste konaba Tasi Timor. Australia tenki iha boa fee tuur hamutuk Governu Timor-Leste hodi diskuti no rezolve fronteira maritima tuir konvensaun, norma ho prinsipiu internasional. Nunee hatudu Australia kumpri konvensaun, prinsipiu ho norma internasional nebee nian prega ba China. Karik Australia respeita duni, husi nee mak fo todan ba pozisaun Australia hodi kulia konaba asuntu South China Sea no isu internasional sira seluk nebe relevante. Se lae, Australia la iha autoridade moral hodi kulia konaba problema South China Sea ho isu-isu relevante seluk. Tanba Australia rasik la iha komitimentu ho boa fee rezolve isu-isu internasional hanesan Tasi Timor tuir dalang Konvensaun, norma ho prinsipiu internasional.

Nudar nasaun boot, riku no komunga Lei internasional, Australia tenki fuan boot tuur hamutuk Governu Timor-Leste hodi negosia fronteira maritima entre nasaun rua nee. Australia kulia konaba isu South China Sea, entaun Australia mos tenki hatudu nian konsistensia ho obrigasaun hodi tuur hamutuk Governu Timor-Leste hodi kulia overlapping claim fronteira maritima hanesan kazu South China Sea. Australia la bele hatudu nian inkonsitensia konaba asuntu internasional nebee Australia fasil hatoo ba China hodi respeita konvensaun ho kustumu internasional, maibe nian rasik la kumpri. Nunee sakrifika mos nian kredibilidade ho reputasaun nudar nasaun boot, riku ho demokratiku.*

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